The fourth way station I installed along the Bitterroot Trail was at a beautiful spot overlooking the Bitterroot River. Hopefully there is milkweed in the river, and the butterflies can pass back and forth between the bike path and the water. Although the bike path is high up on an embankment, this should be no problem— apparently monarchs can ride thermals thousands of feet up in the air, potentially crossing mountain ranges.
Listening back through my recordings, it is striking how much environmental noise is present from cars, trains, and other machines. How does this noise pollution affect plants and insects? Could the increasing noisiness of the world be an unstudied threat to the butterflies?